TAPPI Standards Tensile Testing of Paper
Paper and paper board testing is important to the pulp and paper industry because of the demands placed upon it for a wide range of applications. In printing, for example, paper is handled from either cut sheets or rolls (webs) and the tensile strength and elongation properties must meet stringent customer requirements. We measure the tensile breaking strength of paper and board by testing paper strips, and measuring breaking load and stretch following the procedure in T 404. Additional requirements for testing of pulp hand sheets are detailed in standard T 220. These include evaluation of bursting strength, tensile breaking load, breaking length and tear factor.
Tensile Energy AbsorptionTensile energy absorption (TEA) of paper is defined as the area under the load-elongation curve (i.e., energy) related to the surface area of paper between the grips. This result is typically used to characterize the energy absorbing capacity of paper (see T 494), and use of a microprocessor or computer to calculate energy greatly simplifies data reduction.
Measuring StretchThe amount of stretch in paper and board is a critical measure of quality, since it is a necessary requirement for a sheet to fold well and resist local stress when used in packaging, corrugated board and tissues. We suggest that after initially clamping a sample in the upper grip, to apply a small stress to remove waviness. The sample is then pulled to rupture within a specified time, as detailed in T 457.
For products such as paper towels and bags, which are stressed after being moistened, many mills evaluate the web tensile properties from hand sheets, which can require special fixturing, as described in T 456.The Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) publishes much of the literature and standards for the industry, as does the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association (CPPA).
Instron 3300 Series Universal Testing Systems for Tensile, Compression, Bend, and other material property tests.
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5900 Universal Testing Systems are engineered for precision, built for durability, and offer the flexibility for changing requirements. They are designed with standard and optional features that increase testing efficiency and improve the testing experience for the operator. A wide range of models are available for testing capacities from < 100N up to 600kN.
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Bluehill 2 material testing software is the second generation of the original fully-integrated modular software package that provides easy tailored application solutions for today's laboratory managers and test technicians. In addition to the standard testing applications including tensile, compression, flexural, peel, tear and friction, Bluehill 2 has several new and unique added features.
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Screw action grips provide a very simple and effective method for holding test specimens in a wide range of applications. The dual-action design of 2710-200 series grips means that jaw faces can be independently adjusted to accommodate different specimen thicknesses and geometries, ensuring that the line of tensile force remains concentric with the grip body. They can be equipped with a selection of optional jaw faces with a choice of surfaces including smoothground, rubber-coated, serrated and wave profile.
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